In The Vine and the Son of Man (my review), Andrew Streett reveals Psalm 80 as an overlooked but important contribution to the Messianic portrait in both the Old and New Testaments. He considers the role of the Psalm within the Psalter, as an influence behind Daniel 7, its interpretation in Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, and then the New Testament in Mark’s Gospel, the Parable of the Wicked Tenants (Mk 12) and Jesus’ true vine discourse in John 15.
In this post, I want to focus on some of Psalm 80’s connections within the Psalter that develop Messianic expectation.
Psalm 80 and Messianic Expectation
Psalm 80 is a lament pleading that the Lord respond to a national disaster of some kind (Ps 80:6-7). Using the language of a vine, Asaph recounts Israel’s exodus from Egypt and the Lord “planting” her in the land (Ps 80:8-11). However, now this vineyard has been ravaged by beasts (Ps 80:12-13, 16), that is, foreign nations. Her only hope is if Lord has pity on the vine and the king (Ps 80:14-15, 18).
Andrew Streett identifies five unique contributions that Psalm 80 makes to the messianic profile in the Psalter.
- A purely future hope. Other Psalms are interpreted as future either in light of their placement in the Psalter (Ps 132 in Book V) or in light of contrasting the ideal language of the Psalm and the historical reality of Israel’s kings (Ps 2, 72, 110). However, the king of Psalm 80 is clearly projected into the future.
- Association with national revival. The connection between the king and Israel in this Psalm is so close that they appear to blur together . Is the vine the king or the nation (Ps 80:14-15)? What happens to Israel’s king happens to Israel. No other Psalm so clearly links Israel’s national restoration with the restoration of her king.
- Human viceregent over paradise. Also unique to Psalm 80 is Eden-like language being applied to the king. Since Israel is presented as a vineyard, and her enemies as wild animals, it is fitting that the king be presented as a new Adam (=“son of Adam”, Ps 80:17). Streett goes so far as to say Psalm 80 presents the king “as a type of second Adam figure who will be set up over a restored vine/vineyard” (pg. 80).
- The king and plant imagery. No other Psalm clearly describes the Davidic kingdom as a vine. This provides a bridge to the language of the prophets (Isa 11:1, 10; 53:2; etc).
- The Twelve Tribes Reunified. Only Psalm 80 specifies that the king will reign over the twelve unified tribes of Israel as they were under Solomon and David (Ps 801-3, 11). Ezekiel 36-37 develops this idea.
Psalm 80 and the King
In addition to presenting unique messianic features, Psalm 80 also is connected to other key messianic Psalms.
Along with Psalm 1, Psalm 2 establishes the key themes of the Psalter. Psalm 2 anticipates an anointed coming king (Ps 2:2) who the Lord will establish (Ps 2:6) and who will subdue foreign nations and rule the world (Ps 2:8). As the king, he is in a father-son relationship with YHWH (Ps 2:7; 2 Sam 7).
Psalm 80 refers to the “man of your right hand” and “the son of man” (Ps 80:17), also calling him simply “the son” (Ps 80:15). Only Psalm 2:7 and Psalm 72:1 identify the king as “son”, emphasizing the uniqueness of Psalm 80. This makes the petitions in Psalm 80 a request for the Psalm 2/72 king.
Psalm 8 is probably not directly about the king, but rather about mankind’s role as kings over the earth. In Psalm 8, the synonymous parallelism, a common feature in Hebrew poetry, identifies the “son of man” with “man(kind)” (Ps 8:4). “Son of man” is a common expression for mankind elsewhere in the OT. However, Psalm 80 is about the king, and he is called “son of man” (Ps 80:17). Why is this? Following the imagery of Psalm 80, by the king restoring the garden and defeating the beasts (symbolic for foreign nations and possibly evil divine beings), he would restore God’s Psalm 8 creation order. Given the creation theme of Psalm 8, the connection is clear.
Within Book II of the Psalter, Psalm 72 sets forth the picture of the ideal king. He is either expected to be Solomon, or the Psalm is written by Solomon (depending on how one translates the first verse). Either way, Solomon, the greatest of Israel’s kings, does not meet the Messianic hope. One of the hopes for the king would be that he rules over the whole earth (Ps 2:8). Psalm 72:8 presents this hope also, and Psalm 80:11 alludes to it.
Within Book III, Psalm 89 presents the failure of Israel’s kings that eventually led to exile. Within the Psalm, the hope for the king, in light of God’s covenant with David, is recounted. Psalm 89:25 points back to Psalm 72:8 and thus connects also to Psalm 80:11. Other connections that speak of the Ps 89 national desolation are Ps 80:12=Ps 89:40 and Ps 80:13=Ps 89:41.
The hope-filled Psalm 110 (Psalm 2 on steroids) is also connected to Psalm 80. Psalm 110:1 famously speaks of the king as being at God’s right hand. Though having God at one’s right hand often speaks of His protection and support (Ps 18:35; 20:7), only Psalm 80 and 110 use that idea to communicate shared rule (Ps 80:17).
Beyond the Psalter, Psalm 80 appears to have influenced Daniel 7 and New Testament teaching of Jesus. It is surprising that this Psalm is so often overlooked considering its unique contribution to the Messianic hope, and even moreso given its connection to other Messianic Psalms!
Mark Strauss is the author of the acclaimed Gospels introduction Four Portraits, One Jesus and has provided the edition for Mark in the Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (ZECNT).
For Strauss, Mark emphasizes Jesus as Messiah (Mark 1:1-8:30) and Suffering Servant (Mark 8:31-16:8), with a strong focus on discipleship. In his introduction, Strauss follows fairly traditional conclusions with regards to authorship (Mark with Peter’s direction), Date (late 60s). Strauss also holds to Markan Priority (i.e. the first Gospel). Rather than following a geographical outline of Mark like Lane, France, and others, Strauss follows a theological outline framed around the two themes above. In the end, the outline is fairly similar to alternatives in its verse divisions. Strauss tentatively holds that Mark is intended to end at Mk 16:8, and that Mk 16:9-20 are a later scribal addition. Though not considered original with Mark, Strauss comments briefly on these latter verses.
Following the ZECNT format, the commentary for each section of text contains the following sub-units:
- Literary Context (how does this section fit with its surroundings?)
- Main idea (one or two sentence summary)
- Translation and Graphical Layout (a discourse analysis in the author’s translation)
- Structure (the flow of thought)
- Exegetical Outline (a structure useful for teaching)
- Explanation of the Text (verse by verse comments)
- Theology in Application (theological reflection on the text)
The explanation of the text is clear, concise, and competent. I found his treatment of the miracles and his comments on Greco-Roman culture particularly useful. At times, Strauss also handles some of the differences in the Gospel accounts and summarizes the issues well. However, space prevents from much detail and creativity so the commentary series shines more in its unique features, such as the Graphical Layout and Theology in Application sections.
Unfortunately, I am not convinced Strauss utilized the Graphical Layout to the best of its potential. Given this section beginning each section of text, I was expecting more focus on the literary features of Mark. To me, this was underutilized by Strauss, and resulted in me bypassing his graphical layouts before long since they were largely irrelevant to his explanation of the text. Of course space is a restraint in this series, but perhaps Strauss could have used the space he devoted to addressing Gospel harmonization or historical Jesus matters as these were not developed in much detail. I think greater focus would have given the commentary a more consistent and unique role for the interpreter.
That said, the other unique feature of this commentary series, the Theology in Application, was used to great effect. I found most of these to be pastoral in tone, applicable and naturally connected to the meaning of the passage in question. This will be very useful to the pastor or teacher who wants to ensure they grounding their exhortations in the text.
Though not necessarily offering anything new, Strauss’ Mark commentary is a solid contribution to the ZECNT series and certainly recommended for pastors and teachers for its accessibility, clarity of prose and particularly the content in the Theology in Application sections.Some knowledge of Greek is beneficial, but not necessary. Given its format, Mark would serve well giving an introduction a passage, with other commentaries filling in the detail and meeting other needs.
Buy from Amazon UK / USA
- Publisher: Zondervan Academic
- Series: Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
- Hardcover 784 pages
As I mentioned in my review yesterday, The Flow of the Psalms is an excellent survey of the Psalter as a book. I recommend that everyone pick up a copy, but one lucky winner will find out for free.
Follow the instructions below to enter the giveaway. Good luck!
Check back tomorrow to win a copy!
Who killed the concept album? Perhaps the iPod, where suddenly thousands of songs could be ripped from their contexts and shuffled with ease. Perhaps the iPhone brought more damage, with smaller storage space leaving room only for one’s favourite tracks. Whatever the case, the unique experience of sitting down to hear an entire carefully crafted album has become an all but forgotten pastime. Some stubborn musicians today still tailor the “concept album experience” for equally stubborn fans; but for the most part, shuffling is the new norm. “So what?”, a bratty youth will declare. What’s lost is following the ebb and flow of a musical journey. What’s lost is hearing a song as greater than the sum of its parts. Concept albums tell a story and take you somewhere; an experience lost with shuffle listening. Ironically, long before the iPod came onto the scene, God’s children have been reading the Psalms on shuffle. But what if this “shuffle reading”, however edifying, is reading the Psalms with blinders? What if the Psalter is not Israel’s Greatest Hits, but rather Israel’s Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band or The Wall? Recent Psalms scholarship is beginning to argue along these lines, but their work is still in the pioneering stage and relatively inaccessible to most Christians. O. Palmer Robertson’s The Flow of the Psalms is timely for making such insights accessible and attainable for any interested reader and providing valuable insights in reading the Psalter as a book.
The Flow of the Psalms
After a short introduction explaining some of the benefits to this way of reading, Robertson identifies twelve basic structural elements that reveal an intentional Psalter arrangement. Next, he places the Psalter within its redemptive-historical context, arguing that they flow primarily from the Davidic covenant; the climax of the OT. From here, each Book of Psalms (I-V) is considered in turn, considering virtually every Psalm and its role. Robertson contends that a storyline progresses throughout the Psalter and each Book moves it forward.
Beyond the abundant insights gleaned from recognizing design and purpose in the Psalter’s arrangement, The Flow of the Psalms exhibits other particular strengths; perhaps greatest, its accessibility. Robertson’s writing is clear and concise, mostly avoiding scholarly jargon (though numerous footnotes are thankfully present). What I consider the most unique and useful contribution in The Flow of the Psalms is a focus on how the Psalter’s structure aids memorisation through elements such as Hallelujah collections and Acrostics appearing in key places. Robertson assists this by identifying each Book with a summarising heading (e.g. Book 3, “Devastation”) that aptly aids in grasping the flow of the Psalter, but also in memorisation. What’s more, at the end of the book are several colour pages visualizing Robertson’s outline of the Psalter.
Naturally, being a book on 150 Psalms, one will not be convinced by everything Robertson advocates. One dominant structural element for Robertson (and others) is coupling of Messiah-Torah Psalms that reflect Ps 1-2 (Ps 18-19; 118-119) and halve book I and V. Though compelling, I think these couplings are unconvincing.
- As to Ps 118-119: Is Psalm 118 plainly messianic? Psalms scholars are divided. The Ps 118-119 structural pairing also results in a downplaying of Ps 110, the most quoted OT passage in the NT. Moreover, Michael Snearly argues convincingly in The Return of the King (my review) that Ps 118 belongs with Ps 107-117, not with 119.
- As to Ps 18-19: By giving Ps 18-19 a controlling significance, the compelling chiastic unit of Ps 15-24 is dismissed. But since Ps 18 and 20-21 are similar, perhaps it’s better Ps 19 as sandwiched between Messiah Psalms?
What’s more, some of Robertson’s labels are vague. Labelling Psalms 20-24, 45-48, and 75-76 as “Kingship Psalms” is a good example. This label blurs the main point of some of these Psalms by categorizing them as about kingship. Is the famous picture of suffering in Psalm 22 primarily about “[bringing] together Messiah’s kingship and Yahweh’s kingship” (p71)? And while shepherd does have oft-forgotten kingly overtones, is Psalm 23 primarily concerned with Yahweh’s kingship? It also implies that Psalms in other groupings are somehow less – or not at all – about kingship. But in light of the abundant insights throughout the book, these points are relatively minor and subjective. Gold should not be thrown away due to some dross.
Like any book with fresh ideas, The Flow of the Psalms provokes original thought and invites engagement. 2015 was an excellent year of reading, and The Flow of the Psalms certainly is among the year’s best. In preparation for teaching the Psalms at CCBCY, this has not only helped me grasp the big picture of the Psalms, but also provided a teaching plan that surveys the flow of the Psalter. I tweaked this big-picture outline during the semester, as my own thoughts began to crystallise, but The Flow of the Psalms was invaluable for giving me the foundation. I expect The Flow of the Psalms will do the same for countless other pastors and teachers. However, rich with insights, any Christian interested in giving up the Psalms on shuffle should pick this up and recover the Psalms’ epic concept album.
The concept album is not dead; long live the Psalter.
Many thanks to IVP UK for providing a copy of The Flow of the Psalms in exchange for review.
An exciting development within recent scholarship is to read the Psalter as a book, with a structure and even a story. This approach opens the text in new ways; however, not all are in agreement as to how the story plays out. For many, in light of Psalm 89, the Psalter encourages its readers not to place their trust in the Davidic kings but in YHWH alone. However, this is not the only way to read. In his lightly revised PhD dissertation entitled Return of the King: Messianic Expectation in Book V of the Psalter, Michael Snearly argues that Book V (Psalms 107-150) reveals a “purposeful arrangement” that “signals a renewed hope in the royal/Davidic promises” (p1). The 44 Psalms in Book V are structured around key word-themes related to the central Psalms 1-2 and 89, and climax with a series of Hallelujah Psalms. In this way, Book V finds the Psalter’s main themes picked up and carried to fulfillment.
Snearly finds Book V’s division around key words as follows:
- Psalms 107-118 (חסד/covenant-loyalty and צולם/eternal/forever)
- Psalm 119 (תורה/Torah/Law)
- Psalms 120-137 (ציון/Zion)
- Psalms 138-145 (מלך/King)
- Psalms 146-150 (הללו־יה/Hallelujah)
The Return of the King
Snearly recognizes that not all are convinced by the canonical/editorial model of reading the Psalter as a “carefully arranged” book (p10), so chapter 2 begins by addressing this head on. Snearly presents answers to critics’ concerns carefully and convincingly before offering his thoughts on the three most serious dangers to be avoided. First, there is the tendency to overreach and jump to unsubstantiated conclusions: one’s own conclusions must be grounded in the text itself and not an impressionistic sketch. Second is the opposite error of rigorous but narrow analysis of a small collection of Psalms. Third, is the problem of information overload: “evidence must be weighed, not counted” (p19). That is, one must determine the most significant data and build conclusions from there.
A constant danger in this reading of the Psalter is subjectivity: rather than a window revealing the text, one’s own reflection is seen instead. After surveying various methodologies of those who came before (chapter 3), a rigorous method is developed to avoid this error (chapter 4). Snearly expands the approach of David Howard by discerning arrangement from key-word links, distant parallelism, common superscriptions, common themes and structural parallels. To achieve this end, Snearly utilized Logos Bible Software and a close reading of the Hebrew text to conduct more thorough and objective sifting of data than previously possible.
Chapter 5 outlines various leading proposals for Book V’s structure. Options for arranging Book V fall into either 1) הודו/הללו־יה, aka “Hallelujah/Give Thanks”, and 2) Variegated Taxonomy. The former approach capitalizes upon the recurrence of these words at Ps 106:48/Ps 107:1, Ps 117:2/Ps 118:1 and Ps 135:21/Ps 136:1, resulting in three major groups within Book V: Ps 107-117, 118-135 and 136-150. The latter approach recognizes this element, but considers it along with other relevant data, such as common superscriptions, authorship or genre. Snearly finds the Variegated Taxonomy to “accommodate the evidence of Book V better” (p78). Two Psalms that are difficult to any proposed arrangement are Psalm 119 and Psalm 137; so much so that “[t]he strength of a proposal regarding the organization of Book V is, then, related to how seamlessly these two psalms fit” (p78).
Before proposing a superior structure, however, the Psalter’s storyline is outlined in chapter 6. It is discerned that Psalms 1-2 and 89 “influence the narrative arc of the Psalter most clearly” (p79); Ps 1-2 set the story-themes of the Psalter, and Ps 89 is the turning point from which the story must recover. The Psalter sets forth YHWH’s promises in the Davidic covenant of an ideal Torah-devoted Messiah ruling from Zion (Ps 1-2) but the failure of the kings calls YHWH’s own eternal covenant-fidelity into question (Ps 89). Many conclude, given the failure of the kings in Ps 89, that the remainder of the Psalter extols YHWH’s exclusive kingship (e.g. Ps 92-100) but holds no hope for a future Davidic king. Snearly’s work seeks to rebut this view, by recognizing Book V as answering the crisis in Ps 89 and reaffirming and anticipating the fulfillment of Messianic in Ps 1-2. From these three key Psalms, it is revealed that eternal covenant-loyalty, Torah, Zion, and Davidic kingship “are integral to the macro-structure“ of the Psalter (p 116). The remaining chapters tackle these word-themes, discovering that they summarize different sections of Book V.
The Structure of Book V
Psalms 107-118 (chapter 7) address YHWH’s apparent covenant failure seen in the unfaithful kings and resulting exile of Israel. YHWH’s eternal covenant-loyalty, especially as expressed in His covenant with David, is reaffirmed in the beginning and end of this section: Ps 107:1 and Ps 118:29. This sub-division is established by considering its boundaries and inner cohesion, and then its significance to the Psalter’s storyline is considered. Perhaps most controversial in this section is its ending: should it end with Ps 117, 118, or 119? Though many see Ps 118 as beginning a new section, Snearly argues compellingly that Ps 118 “serves better as a conclusion than as an introduction” (p127). Traditionally, Ps 118 has been grouped with Ps 113-117 to form the “Egyptian Hallel”, manuscripts have been found with Ps 118 joined with Ps 117, and stronger lexical and thematic connections are found with 107-117 than 119. Internally, this collection shares common words, phrases (e.g. Ps 107:1 and 118:1, 29; 113:2 and 115:18) and literary features (e.g. acrostics Ps 111-112). Thematically, each Psalm carries forward the theme of YHWH’s eternal covenant-fidelity, a “resounding affirmation” of YHWH’s promises to David (p126). Ps 107-118, then squarely answer the complaint in Ps 89.
As a monolithic and solitary pillar to Torah (only one verse, Ps 119:122, does not refer to Torah or a synonym), chapter 8 considers Psalm 119 as its own unit. This may be surprising to have a solitary Psalm as a unit, but it could be considered 22 short Psalms, and in terms of size, it is only slightly shorter than Ps 120-137 combined! Ps 119 has a unique vocabulary, with most Torah words not appearing in Book V. What’s more, numerous connections between Psalm 1, which forms the triad of Torah Psalms with 19 and 119, are discerned. Psalm 119 reaffirms the claims of Psalm 1 that the Torah of YHWH is the pathway to life. Torah-faithfulness is the calling of Israel, but especially the king (Ps 1-2; Deut 17), so “Psalm 119, along with Psalms 107–118, witnesses to the re-emergence of the ideal Davidic ruler within the storyline of Psalms” (p139).
Chapter 9 finds that Psalms 120-137 reaffirm YHWH’s commitment to Zion as His dwelling place, and Israel’s hope of return from exile. This collection includes the Songs of Ascents (Ps 120-134), an easily discernible unit of its own, but also Ps 135-137, which are more difficult and thus controversial to place. Beyond the shared superscriptions, Ps 120-134 share several parallel clauses (e.g. Ps 121:2; 124:8; 134:3). More difficult, however, is the placement of Ps 135-137; particularly Ps 137, whose placement has baffled many scholars. Snearly draws on the recent dissertation of James Todd, who argues for the unity of Ps 135-137. Similarities between Ps 134 and 135, as well as key words from Ps 120-134 duplicated in Ps 135-137 (sing, Zion, Jerusalem, Israel, ascents), bring the sections together. What is the significance of this section? The emphasis of praise and place words remind us that the Davidic promises celebrated in Ps 2 and questioned in Ps 89 “are clearly bound with Yahweh’s commitment to Zion“ (p153) in this unit, particularly Ps 132:13, 17-18. As Snearly concludes, “[b]y linking Zion with the king, Psalm 132 demonstrates that the program outlined in Psalm 2 still stands – Yahweh’s reign will be represented by an earthly king whose throne is on Zion” (p153-154).
The Davidic king returns in Psalms 138-145, forming a distinct unit according to chapter 10. These Psalms are united in their Davidic authorship (the largest Davidic collection since Book II), as well as recurring links echoing Books I-III, especially Psalms 1-2. For example, Selah occurs four times in this collection, but nowhere else in Books IV or V. King, kingship and kingdom words appear at the boundary Psalms 138, 144, and 145, showing that a New David remains central to the Psalter.
Chapter 11 considers the concluding Hallelujah Psalms (Ps 146-150) as a fitting conclusion, not only to Book V, but to the Psalter as a whole. Many conclude that rather than a verse or two concluding Book I-IV, the Hallelujah Psalms conclude Book V. Snearly, however, argues convincingly that Ps 145:21 acts as a concluding doxology. Despite its apparent differences, there are significant similarities between Ps 145:21 and the other closing Doxologies. This means that Ps 146-150 conclude the Psalter itself (much as Ps 1-2 introduce the entire Psalter, not just Book I). The Hallelujah Psalms present the story fulfilled: the story of a heavenly king and his earthly representative who forms a people in the midst of a hostile world and extend their kingdom over the unruly nations” (p181).
The Return of the King is a thorough and scholarly work. I cannot offer significant critique as Snearly has met his own exacting standards for Psalms scholarship. First, Snearly is restrained in his conclusions. Chapters 7-11 end with some thoughts on significance for the Psalter’s storyline, but these are modest and thoroughly grounded, and therefore hard to dismiss.
Second, Snearly’s gaze is not too narrow to be of any benefit, as he tackles 44 Psalms with skill, managing to discern and clearly explain their cohesion. Snearly’s logical and clear prose is striking.
Third, Snearly clearly weighs his evidence. Much more could be said about Book V, but what we have instead is 248 pages of tight argumentation for Snearly’s thesis. Beyond aiding persuasiveness, this results in a much more enjoyable read.
The Return of the King is a clear, compelling and comprehensive treatment of Book V of the Psalms. Not only does Snearly provide – to my mind – a sensible and persuasive structure to Book V, but one that reveals a strong Messianic hope; a conclusion questioned by many Psalms scholars. What’s more, Snearly sets forth a reliable methodology that begs to be applied to the other books of the Psalter. Anyone interested in the arrangement of the Psalter with basic abilities in Hebrew will want to pick this up. My hope is that The Return of the King will bear as much fruit in both the academy and the church as it has in my own understanding.
Many thanks to Bloomsbury for providing a copy of this book in exchange for an unbiased review.
- Publisher: Bloomsbury T&T Clark
- Series: Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies
- Hardback/eBook 248 pages
- Date: 19 November 2015
This past semester at Calvary Chapel Bible College York I taught through the Psalms for the first time. I read broader and studied deeper than ever before. It felt as though every waking moment I was thinking of the Psalms in some way, and yet I have only just scratched the surface. Here are the most useful resources I came across.
Here is the outline of the two posts:
Audio/Video and Journal Articles
The Bible Project video on the Psalms (link)
The Bible Project is consistently releasing videos of extremely high quality, and this is one of their most extensive. They did a great job of summarizing the canonical reading of the Psalms, especially the influence of Psalms 1-2. As always, this comes highly recommended.
Lectures on the Psalms by James Hely-Hutchinson (link)
Hely-Hutchinson gives great big-picture overviews of each Book of the Psalms. I continually found him confirming my own big-picture thoughts, which was encouraging! At the time, I didn’t realize he spoke on the Psalter on three separate occasions (2002, 2006 and 2015). I have only heard the 2002 lectures, but I can highly recommend them all.
Stirred by a Noble Theme lectures (link)
These lectures were transformed into a book, which I hope to track down eventually. Particularly helpful for me were the talks by Hely-Hutchinson, John Woodhouse, and David Peterson.
Sermons on the Psalms by Jim Hamilton (link)
Hamilton is the Professor of Biblical Theology at SBTS and pastor of Kenwood Baptist church, where these sermons are being preached. He is also going to provide the Psalms commentary for the new BTCP series from B&H (see my review of Schreiner’s Hebrews volume). Hamilton preaches these Psalms well individually, and also helps explain the literary structure and canonical placement. He reads the Psalms sequentially to great effect.
Timothy Raymond’s Recommendations at Credo Magazine (link)
At the risk of simply recommending everything Raymond does (though I haven’t heard Lawson’s lectures), I encourage readers to check out his list and other posts on commentaries too.
I have provided PDF links where possible. Many others can be found with a Galaxie subscription.
- Psalms: A Cantata About the Davidic Covenant by John H. Walton (JETS)
- Psalm 2 and the Reign of the Messiah by George A. Gunn (BSac)
- Putting David in His Place: The Logic of the Arrangement of Psalms 15-24 by Philip Sumpter
- The Promise to David in Psalm 16 And Its Application in Acts 2:25-33 and 13:32-37 by Walter C. Kaiser Jr (JETS)
- Views on Peter’s Use of Psalm 16:8–11 in Acts 2:25–32 by Gregory V. Trull (BSac)
- An Exegesis of Psalm 16:10 by Gregory V. Trull (BSac)
- Peter’s Interpretation of Psalm 16:8–11 in Acts 2:25–32 by Gregory V. Trull (BSac)
- Psalm 16, 22, and 110 Historically Interpreted as Referring to Jesus by John E. McKinley
- “The Lord is Christ’s Shepherd”: Psalm 23 as Messianic Prophecy by Douglas J. Green
- About the Shape if It: How a Canonical Reading Helps Us Understand Psalm 45 Messianically by A. J. Culp
- The Narrative Effect of Psalm 84-89 by Robert E. Wallace (JHS)
- Psalms 90-106: Book Four of a Five-Part Drama by Sue Gillingham
- The Strategic Placement of the “Hallelu-Yah” Psalms Within the Psalter by O. Palmer Robertson (JETS)
- Psalm 110:1 and the New Testament by Herbert W. Bateman IV
- The Strategic Arrangement of Royal Psalms In Books IV–V by Junkyu Kim
- Chiastic Psalms: A Study in the Mechanics of Semitic Poetry in Psalms 1-50 by Robert Alden
- Chiastic Psalms (ii): A Study in the Mechanics of Semitic Poetry in Psalms 51-100 by Robert Alden
- Chiastic Psalms (iii): A Study in the Mechanics of Semitic Poetry in Psalms 101-150 by Robert Alden
Anything good that I missed?